Developing a method to meet local wastewater disposal guidelines poses a unique set of challenges to each industry. Adequate treatment is necessary to prevent contamination of receiving waters but overtreatment is prohibitively expensive. It is important to note that when industries disposal of wastewater, the goal is not to create drinkable water but rather water that will not damage the surrounding environment. Depending upon the industry, biological, chemical, or combination water treatment plants may be the most effective option.
Chemical treatment plants are primarily used by the steel and metal industry, electronics industry, and other industries which have to deal with inorganic chemicals. The target pollutants of a chemical plant are metallic matter and other objects which alter the pH level of the wastewater. Depending upon the chemicals used in the treatment efficiency can have a large range. Since the target is metallic matter, the treatment efficiency is typically around 90 percent to 95 percent.
The benefit of using a chemical water plant is it requires much less space than a biological plant. Additionally, the initial installation and operation of the plant is relatively easy. As a result, it doesn't need to be professionally managed by a third party. The chemicals typically used in a water treatment plant include sodium hydroxide, aluminum sulfate, polymer coagulant, and sulfuric acid.
Biological water plants are primarily used by processing related industries. This includes the dying/textile industry, for/leather industry, food processing, paper industry, and domestic wastewater municipalities. The target pollutants biological water plants address are high polluted organic matters. This includes organics, inorganic matter, suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus.
There are several benefits of operating a biological water plant. The most notable benefit is the high treatment efficiency. Compared to chemical water plants, biological treatment is much more effective across the board. Additionally, chemical treatment phases can be added, altered, or eliminated depending on the type and property of the wastewater. This level of flexibility makes it easy for local municipalities and corporations to modify their water plants to generate the cleanest wastewater possible.
Regardless of the type of wastewater treatment process utilize, there are normally 4 to 6 stages of treatment the water will go through before it is released. While these stages will vary based upon the type of plant and the treatment effectiveness goals, each stage offers a unique capability which is essential to the overall treatment process.