Water purification is the scientific process of cleaning or sterilizing water for human consumption, or for use in industrial, medical and pharmacological practices. The process removed biological contaminants, chemicals and other materials from water. Water is contaminated through a variety of means and there are numerous methods used for the purification of fluid.
Generally, the process includes the use of filtration systems to filter and clean fluid. Natural water purification occurs through the normal process of water draining through the earth, filtered through plant roots, and into the ground water system. However, with the number of manmade contaminants that add to the undesirable state of ground water, additional means must be employed in order to clean fluid for human consumption. Those locations that are highly populated have water treatment and purification plants that process large amounts of water every day to make it usable in residential homes and commercial facilities.
Homes which operate off of wells face additional challenges for liquid purification. Many who live in the city find water filtration and purification necessary as well, as additional chemicals are often added to city water in treatment plants to clean the water and make it safe for consumption, cooking, bathing, and other normal activities. However, many people see these chemicals as potentially harmful and the taste of city water is also largely a factor in the choice to use additional in home liquid filtration and purification methods.
Commercial substance filters and purifiers are easy to find. Many can be attached directly to the facet, and work by filtering tap water through additional means in order to remove chemicals and other contaminants. Purifiers can also be larger appliances, similar to a water softener, and capable of filtering water for the entire home through a single, larger unit. The processes used in fluid purification can take many forms. Physical processes include filtration and sedimentation, but biological processes can also be quite common, including activated sludge filtration and the use of slow sand filters. Other processes include chemical treatments like those in flocculation and chlorination. Other methods can include the use of ultraviolet light and electromagnetic radiation.